What Sadaqat-Ul-Fitr ?
This is a duty upon every sane Muslim, who has the value of Nisab. Fathers are instructed to give Fitr on behalf of those children who are not of age yet.
The amount that must be given is equal to 1.6 kg of wheat or 3.2 kg of barley = which equates to £3. This does not mean that a person must distribute wheat or barley, one may give its equivalent value.
Fitr is an emphasized Sunnah which becomes due before ‘Eid Salah, although it is preferable to give it a few days before ‘Eid so that the poor actually receive it and are able to spend it on `Eid day. If one does not give the Fitr, it will remain due no matter how much time passes after ‘Eid. This will become Sadaqah not Fitr.
What is Fidya?
This is compensation for missing Salah or a Fast for a person who cannot perform them due to being in terminal illness or being deceased (in which case it is given out of a third of the wealth) or in the event of a person making a minor mistake in Hajj. The amount for each missed Salah or Fast, or each minor mistake in Hajj is to give the same amount given for Fitr = £3 to the poor. Sadaqah Nafilah may be given in addition either from the deceased’s estate or on their behalf in which case both the giver and the deceased are rewarded.
What is Kaffarah
This is major compensation and like Fidyah It applies in various situations such as if a person breaks a fast intentionally, breaks an oath, or kills someone, Kaffarah would then be binding as the form of redemption. There are five actions for which Kaffarah will be necessary, however, they fall under two types.
The greater Kaffarah: For redemption of this a person may free a slave (if feasible) or fast for sixty consecutive days (If a person breaks a fast intentionally they would need to fast for sixty consecutive days, unless they can’t fast due to poor health or old age, there are no exceptions to this). Failing that one may feed sixty poor people – each meal is equivalent to a Fidyah = £3. This Kaffarah applies to:
- Intentionally breaking a fast
- Being the direct cause of someone’s death (this is coupled with the set punishments).
The lesser Kaffarah: For redemption of this a person may free a slave (which is no longer applicable) or feed ten poor people. Failing this, he may fast for three consecutive days (The order is also different from the greater Kaffarah). This Kaffarah applies to:
- Breaking/Violating Yamin (an oath)
- Breaking Ila’ (To take an oath on not having conjugal relationships with one’s wife)